The rules and procedures that you will have to follow when applying for a visa depend on your particular situation. There are visas for short stays (less than 3 months) and special visas for people who intent to reside in the Netherlands for longer periods.
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The most current information about visas can be found on the website of the Dutch government.
The Immigration and Naturalisation Service IND (immigratie- en naturalisatie dienst) is the admissions organisation of the Netherlands. This implies that the IND will handle all applications and permits of individuals who want to reside in the Netherlands. The English language section of the IND’s website offers you a comprehensive and actual overview of all the rules and procedures.